戦略立案

 

 

戦略立案は経営学の中でもっとも研究されていて、それでいて、正しい戦略立案方法は確立されていません。相手のある競争の中で、いかにして勝利を収めるかはそのときどきによって違ってくるわけです。

そのとき、そのときで違ってくる競争を整理する枠組みとしてはマイケル・ポーターが1980年代始めに提唱した


Michael Porter
Photo by G.Wexler

  • 企業競争における5つの力モデル
  • 企業の競争力評価のための価値連鎖モデル

の2つがいまだに基本的概念となっています。

また、さらにさかのぼって企業の競争力の根源を強化することに注力したプラハラードとハメルによるコア・コンペタンスの考え方も最近注目されています。


Gary Hamel

戦略論に関してさらに詳しい情報は、こちらを参照ください

 

 


James Brian Quinn

A strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organization's major goals, policies, and action sequences into a cohesive whole. Back to Top

  1. Capability
  2. Competitive Advantage
  3. Value Chain
  4. Industry Environment
  5. Strategic Analysis Work Sheet


Capability/Core Competnece

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Capability is the identical concept as Core Competence.

Core Competence

The diversified corporation is a large tree. The trunk and major limbs are core products. The smaller branches are business units. The leaves, flowers and fruit are end products. The root system that provides nourishment, sustenance and stability is the core competence.

K.Praharald & Gary Hamel

Capability Evaluation

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  1. Valuableness
  2. Uniqueness
  3. Inimitability
  4. Appropriate Organization
  5. Durability
  6. Insubstitutability
  7. Inappropriability
  8. Competitive Superiority


Competitive Advantage

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Michael Porter's framework is still fundamental!

Go to <Case Study>WalMart

 

WalMart

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Strategic Analysis Work Sheet

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Value Chain

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Go to <Case Study>Hudepohl Brewing Company


Industry Environment

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Go to <Case Study> The Disposable Diaper Industry


Hudepohl Brewing Company Back to Top

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Hudepohl Brewing Company

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Problems:

Hudepohl's most significant problem is that it is facing a decrease in sales and is at a cost disadvantage with regard to distribution and packaging as compared to the industry. Delivery costs are high due to inefficient scheduling and low morale, yet sales from self distribution are the most profitable. Large breweries are able to avoid this problem by utilizing outside distributors. Small breweries are unable to profit in the same way because they cannot offer the same financial and advertising incentives to the distributors as the major breweries. Hudepohl's marketing has been relatively ineffective, and it now faces the problem that it lost the advertising rights during Cincinnati Reds games to Anheuser-Busch.

Industry Trends:

Major breweries are heading toward automation, a move which Hudepohl cannot afford. This makes labor costs higher for Hudepohl than other breweries. National level advertising has benefited the major breweries, knocking out most of the smaller competition. A change in consumer profile, the onset of sales in convenience stores, increased sales in premium beers, and an increase in competition in the Cincinnati market have also had an impact on the market.

Strategy:

Our main strategies are to concentrate on the local market, takeover Schoenling, and reconfiguring product mix.

Recommendations:

  1. Concentrate on Cincinnati market and self-distribution -Since self-delivered beer is profitable,5%(Draft) and 19%(Bottle) and Cincinnati is the largest market for Hudepohl, we should concentrate on the Cincinnati market and self-distribution. Offer delivery incentives to draft drivers, similar to those received by bottle drivers, based on the number of barrels delivered per week.
  2. Buy out Schoenling -Benefits include increased profit share and market share, and improved distribution network. Schoenling's resource of trucks would increase Hudepohl's ability to self-distribute its beer. Schoenling's existing profit margin would generate a part of revenue to support a new super premium beer made by Hudepohl. By keeping Schoenling's name, customers loyal to its brands will continue to drink its beer.
  3. Aggressive Marketing -Create "Buckeye Beer, the beer for the people of Ohio". Capitalize on the intense state spirit that prevails in Ohio by marketing "Buckeye Beer'' to the less price sensitive , white-collar workers of Ohio. Since advertising during the Cincinnati Reds games is no longer possible, spend that advertising money on OSU football games. Target the 18-24 year old age range. Since in 1979, the legal drinking age for beer in Ohio was reduced to 18 years of age, the college population became a highly marketable group. In order to capitalize on customer loyalty by offering membership into a Hudepohl Drinking Club. Annual membership fee of $25.00 would provide member with a 5% year long discount on all Hudepohl purchases.
  4. Efficient scheduling - Utilize advanced technology to increase efficiencies in scheduling.

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The Disposable Diaper Indutry

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Guideline for Entry into the Diaper Industry

Industry Analysis:

The disposable diaper industry is profitable and under constant market expansion. P&G dominates the industry with a 69% market share and has developed strong consumer loyalty. Disposable diapers compete against cloth diapers and services, but otherwise have no substitutes. The disposable diaper continues to take market share from cloth diapers, and forecasts show this trend continuing in the future.

Barriers to Entry:

High initial start up costs (i.e., plant, equipment, marketing) and large MES are the major barriers to entry into this industry.

Recommendation for Union Carbide: Union Carbide should enter the market.

Assumptions:

  1. Initial market share of 3%(1974): This is inferred from Johnson & Johnson's entrance market share(2%). UC can exploit its EOS in production of advanced plastic liners to reduce cost. Customers will perceive this technology to be of higher quality and value.
  2. Sale price of 100 diapers will initially be set at $6.20: In order to take market share, UC should adopt a "better quality, better price" strategy.
  3. Cost of materials will be 30% of sales: Owing to a patented inner liner, UC should realize lower material cost compared to competitors.
  4. Labor cost will be 7.5%: Based on UC's integrated manufacturing system, they could realize the same level of labor efficiency as that of P&G.
  5. Depreciation rate will be 1.7%: The same rate as P&G is reasonable in a simulation.
  6. Freight cost will be 12% of sales: Comparing P&G's rate(10%), UC will have an initial disadvantage in the distribution system because distribution systems need relatively long integration periods.
  7. Advertisement cost will be 5% of sales: In order to penetrate into the market, higher advertising costs will be needed over that of competitors.
  8. Free sampling and coupon cost will be 4% of sales: Aggressive marketing will be needed in order to capture market share. UC should target hospitals and groups such as Planned Parenthood for free sampling distribution.
  9. Initial cost will increase the selling and general administration cost to 10%: UC must raise capital to finance the start up of production. Debt has been issued at 10%, although better financing terms are expected due to UC's overall credit rating. The interest rate of 10% is shown as capital expense in the Cash Flow statement.

Based on our assumptions, UC will earn $158 million in sales and $43.9M in cumulative cash flow in 5 years. These figures show enough profitability for UC to enter the disposable diaper industry.

Estimated cost of entry will be $48 million for construction of 2 plants with 24 lines. With this capacity, in five years they can capture 17% of the total market. Since freight and advertisement are national scale sensitive, UC should concentrate on one specific region (ex. New England). They should start production with one plant and once they have established their base, they should penetrate other regional markets. P&G will defend its market share by counter advertisement.

Competitor's Defenseive Tactics:

Competitors will defend their market share through increased advertising in UC's targeted markets. They will pressure supplier and distribution networks to grant less favorable prices to UC. As protection against this defensive action, UC should focus on a "Better quality, Better price" marketing strategy, which is based on their advantageous inner liner.

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