組織運営

「組織運営」系のコースにおいては競争力のある組織運営について研究します。以下のようなトピックスが対象となります。

  • チームワーク
  • 交渉術
  • 意志決定
  • 人事評価
  • 新規参加者への配慮
  • コミュニケーション技術の進歩への対応
  • 多民族環境への対応
  • アウトソーシングの活用
  • 能力開発のための人事異動
  • 組織学習
  • 組織改革

また,リーダーシップや組織内の政治的行動についても,検討します。

 


Go to Organization Behavior

Go to Organization Design


Organization Behavior

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  1. Team Building
  2. Negotiation
  3. Decision Making
  4. Synergy
  5. Feed Back


1. Team Building

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Team are not the solution to everyone's current and future organization needs Nonetheless, team usually do outperform other groups and individuals. J.Katzenbach &D. Smith

The key factors of effective team

1. Small number

2. Complementary skills

1)Technical or functional skill
2)Problem solving and decision making skill
3)Interpersonal skill

3. Common purpose

Team Performance Building

  1. Urgent and worthwhile purpose
  2. Member selection based on skills and skill potential
  3. Good initial impression
  4. Rules of behavior(Attendance, Confidentiality, End- product orientation, constructive confrontation e.t.c.)
  5. Immediate tasks and goals
  6. Fresh information
  7. Spending lost of time together
  8. Rewards

Team Leader

  1. Setting the purpose, goals and approach for the team
  2. Being committed and confident
  3. Mixing member's skills
  4. Managing relationships with outsiders and removing obstacles
  5. Creating opportunities for members
  6. Doing real work

Tips for team activity

  1. Do not forget going back to basics(purpose, goals approach)
  2. Go for small wins
  3. Inject fresh information
  4. Use outside facilitators for problem solving and communication.
  5. Change the team's membership, including the leader

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2. Negotiation

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3. Decision Making

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4. Synergy

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5. FeedBack

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Organization Design

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1. Socialization

2. Communication Technology

3. Globalization

4. Outsourcing

5. Negotiation

6. Management Job Rotation

7. Organization Learning

8. Org. Change Implementation

 

 


1. Socialization

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1) Selection

At the employment management should be careful.
It should be that informed applicant deselect himself.
2) Humanity inducing during the first one month
New employers should self-question their prior behaviors, beliefs, and values.
Most strong culture companies get the new hire's attention by pouring on more work than can possibly be done.
3) Promotion based on deciplines
Management should prepare promotion(=training based on work experience) paths to upper ranks
4) Evaluation and Rewarding
5) Strong Membership
It reconciles personal sacrifices. Long hours of work, missed weekends
6) Legends and Watershed events
7) Consistent practice of 1 to 6


2. Communication Technology

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3. Globalization

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There are various organizational culture in terms of globalization


4. Outsourcing

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  1. Labor for Labor---ex. utilizing cheaper labor.
  2. Technology for Labor
  3. Virtual Group/Organization
  4. Virtual Corporation


5. Negotiation

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1. Negotiation Tool Kit
1) Packing
It is useful to make several alternatives in order to clarify the benefits of options.
2) Fractioning
Dividing the benefits or options into smaller parts makes agreement easier.
3) Reciprocity
Giving and taking information each other is useful to reach mutual satisfaction.
2. Sources of power
Referring to French and Raven, sources of power are classified into Expertise, Legitimate, and Referent in terms of both reward and punishment.
3. Coalitions
Coalition is established in view of following aspects.
1) Identical Preference
When the both negotiating sides have identical preference in some aspects, those points can contribute to create a coalition.
2) Compromise
When each or both sides decide to compromise in some aspects, those compromising points can be recognized as agreement.
3) Intratemporal Logroll
In case that both negotiating sides exchange some benefits with some other disadvantage, this strategical action is called as Intratemporal Logroll.
4) Intertemporal Logroll
When negotiating issues continue over periods, negoriators can exchange each benefit in turn. This tactics is called as Intertemporal Logroll.


6. Management Job Rotation

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Merits
  1. Alleviating Gridlock(especially in flattening organization)
  2. Promoting Perspective Diversity(=increase in creativity)
  3. Better Understanding and Relationship across the Organization(Peer Network)
  4. Providing New Challenges
  5. Giving Subordinates Chances to Delegate a Division
Demerit
  1. Learning Curve Loss
  2. Confusing long term career path
  3. Subordinates' promotion disadvantages under temporary managers


Organization Learning

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Experience
Exploration
Exploiting


Technology Implementation Terri L. Griffith


Technology implementation success is the result of the motivation of participants


1. Expectancy Theory

Expectancy

Relation between effort and performance

Instrumentality

Relation between cause and effect

Valence

Relation between resulted value and specific action

Prospective participants will be motivated when they perceive technology use to have high value


2. Equity Theory

Input

Knowledge, Skills, abilities, effort

Output

Reward/Punishment

Comparison other

Cognitive/Actual

Prospective participants will be motivated when they perceive that technology is equitably rewarded


3. Integrative Negotiation Strategy
Distributive/Integrative/Congruent

  • Identify issues
  • Identify interests
  • Identify preference
  • Identify BAITs
  • Negotiation for integrative combination
  • Post-implementation evaluation

  • 4. Tacit and Express(involved) agreement
    Express agreement will create the value of outcomes


    Organization Change Implementation
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    Creation of involvement