マーケティング

 

マーケティングには、

があります。どちらも仮説の立案、実践、仮説の再立案の過程が繰り返されます。仮説の立案は一種の戦略立案であり、数々のツールを利用して行われます。

リサーチに際してもプロモーションに際しても, の4つのカテゴリーについて検討することが必要とされています。

マーケティングにおいては,タイミングを考慮することが重要で,方法論と ツールを用いて,何度も適切な戦略を再立案する必要があります。


1. Marketing Strategy Formulation

2. Marketing Analysis tools


1. Marketing Strategy Formulation

1) External/Internal Analysis

2) Marketing Plan


1) External/Internal Analysis

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External


Customer segments, Customers' motivations, Customer's unmet needs

 

 

Financial Performances, Images, Objectives, Current & Past Strategies, Cultures, Cost Structures, Strengths & Weaknesses

 

 

Actual and Potential Market Size, Estimated Market Growth , Market Profitability, Cost Structure, Distribution system, Trend, Key Factors of Success

 

 

Technology, government, Economics, Culture, Demographics, General Opportunities & Threats(Probability & Seriousness)

 

 

Internal

Financial Performances, Images, Objectives, Current & Past Strategies, Cultures, Cost Structures, Strengths & Weaknesses

 

 

Originality of the company(Past & Current Strategies, Organization, Finance...

 

2) Marketing Plan

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I. Executive Summary

II. Situation Analysis

 

A.

Industry Analysis

B.

Sales Analysis

C.

Competitor Analysis

D.

Customer Analysis

F.

Planning Assumptions

G.

Forecasts

 

III.

Marketing Objectives

IV.

Marketing Strategy

V.

Marketing Programs

VI.

Financial Documents

VII.

Monitors and Controls

VIII.

Contingency Plan


 

 

 

 

 


2. Marketing Analysis tools

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1. EVC

2. Interval Estimation

3. Legal Restriction

4. Psychological Accounting

5. Non-liner Pricing

6. 4P & 4C Framework

7. Portfolio Analysis

8. N+1 year's Market Penetration

 

 

 

 

 

 


1. EVC

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EVC= Life Cycle Cost1 - Start Up Cost2 - Post Purchase Cost2 + Incremental Value2

(EVC is one of insights of maximum price)

Max Price2 =

Reference Price1

 

+ (Start Up Cost1-Start Up Cost2)

 

+ (Post Purchase Cost1 - Post Purchase Cost 2)

Delusion of cost based pricing

Unit Cost = Variable cost + (Fixed Cost / Unit) + Markup

Price = Unit Cost / (1 - Desired Return on Sales)

or

Price = Unit Cost + Desired Return + Investment Cost / unit # of Sales


2. Interval Estimation

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In order to avoid overconfidence, interval estimation is useful.

When we combine several interval estimations, this estimation is called sensitivity analysis.

Ex.

Market will growth 10 % to 30 %

Market share will be 5% to 20 %

Years of obsolescence will be 1 year to 5 year.

Then,

Maximum expectation is 30 % x 20 % x 5 year

Minimum expectation is 10 % x 5 % x 1 year


3. Legal Restriction

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Discriminatory pricing is illegal

Territorial or customer restriction will illegal if they prevent competition.

Unfair and deceptive promotion is illegal.

Patents, trademarks, copyrights are legal issue.

Warranties are legal issue both explicitly and implicitly

Product liabilities are legal issue both in disappointment cases and defection cases.

Safety regulation is legal issue.


4. Psychological Accounting

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Psychologically gains should be segregated.

Psychologically losses should be integrated.


5. Non-linear Pricing (Quantity Discount)

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Price will decrease as quantity increases.

Therefore marginal revenue will also decrease.


6. 4P & 4C Framework

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4P

4C


7. Portfolio Analysis

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Growth Share Matrix

Market

Growth

Rate


High

_

Stars

Problem Children


Low

_

Cash Cows

Dogs

 

High

Low

 

Ratios of share to share of largest competitor


Market Attractiveness-Business Position Matrix

Business Position

(Ability to Compete)

High

1

1

2

Medium

1

2

3

Low

2

3

3

 

High

Medium

Low

 

Market Attractiveneee

1: Invest

2: Selective Invest

3: Harvest / Divest


Alternative Growth Strategy Matrix

Present Products

New Products

Present

Markets

Growth in existing product & market

  • Increase market share
  • Increase product usage

Product Development

  • Add features
  • Expand product line
  • Develop new generation
  • Develop new products

Mew

Market

Market Development

  • Expand geographically
  • Target new segments

Diversification of products or markets

  • Related
  • Unrelated

 

8. N+1 year's Market Penetration

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If the company penetrate 20% of the market, the company must subtract this 20 % from potential market in the next year.

Potential Market decrease as the company penetrates into it.



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