経済理論

 

 

経済理論は、さまざまな経営理論の前提になっています。

  • 経済動向が企業経営に影響すること
  • コストの上昇と売り上げの上昇が等しくなったとこれで最大利益が得られること
  • 固定費用変動費用の構造が企業の収益構造を決めること
  • 企業は、規模による経済的メリットとある範囲における専門性による経済的メリットの両方を戦略決定の選択肢としてもっていること
  • 購買者の価格弾力性が価格決定に影響を与えること
  • 複数価格の設定によって売り上げの拡大が可能であること
  • ゲーム理論は意志決定の基本であること

等を学びます。

 

What is Economics?

Economics is usually defined as the study of allocation of scarce resources to competing ends.


Summary


Others


Here I will show you excerpt of Exam (Answers are my answers. Then they might not be correct)

List of excerpt(Answers are following)

Why do long run elasticity's of demand differ from short run elasticity's ? Consider two goods : paper towels and televisions.

Suppose currently there are subsidiary and limitation of land acreage for tobacco growers. If subsidiary and limitation of land acreage are eliminated, what will happen?Why do two indifference curves never cross?

Why do two indifference curves never cross?

Does increase in saving rate lead to increase in national income?

Are import quota and tariff preferable for consumers?


Why do long run elasticity's of demand differ from short run elasticity's ? Consider two goods : paper towels and televisions.

The price elasticity of demand for paper towel to be larger in the long run than that in short run. Because increase of demand does not affect in daily consumer behavior but if the increase continue, consumer will switch the need to substitution. In contrast, television is more price elastic in the short run than in the long run. Because generally consumer buy a durable good in a long interval. If price has increased, consumer do not have to buy at that moment, but in the long run people need a durable good. Then television has the opposite response to price change.


Suppose currently there are subsidiary and limitation of land acreage for tobacco growers. If subsidiary and limitation of land acreage are eliminated, what will happen?

The elimination of the acreage limitation leads to moderate supply expansion. This expansion causes the decrease in price. Moreover expansion to less productive land leads to less profit. The price decrease and profit shrinkage are the effects of elimination to growers


Why do two indifference curves never cross?

There is an identical utility on an indifference curve. If two indifference curves intersect, there must be different utilities and identical utility simultaneously. This is not reasonable. Therefore two different indifferent curves never intersect.


Does increase in saving rate lead to increase in national income?

In the long run, since Y=C+S+T(Y: national income, C: consumption, S: savings, T: tax), increase in saving rate does not necessarily change Y. If increase in savings thoroughly comes from decrease in consumption, in the IS-LM diagram both IS and LM curves shift and create a new equilibrium point with an lower interest rate. Because increase in saving is the increase in money supply and leads to an lower interest rate in the money market.

Since an increase in saving rate will leads to the higher investment, we apt to think that growth rate of national income accordingly increases. But if we can increase growth rate, there will be progress of technology which changes basic economic equilibrium.

In short term, increase in savings can leads to either increase or decrease in national income, depending on various conditions such as tax rates or short term effectiveness of investment or consumers' sentiment


Are import quota and tariff preferable for consumers?

Import quota is basically preferable for foreign producers. Tariff is preferable for government. Moreover, taking the equilibrium price into account, Domestic producers also prefer import quota and tariff.

Import quota creates extra profit for foreign producers by the vertical increase of the price at the import quota point. There foreign producers can sell with higher price than in non- import quota situation. This extra income is preferable for foreign producers. But the source of this extra income is the extra payment from consumers.

Tariff also changes the supply curve shape. Tariff raises a selling price of foreign producers up to the market entering price of domestic producers. The profit that this raised price create is transferred to the government as tax. But the source of this extra income of government is also consumers' payment.

Finally, since domestic producers can sell products by equilibrium price between the amount of import quota and that of equilibrium due to the absence of foreign competitors. This preferable price for domestic producers can create profit for them. This profit is also created by extra payment of consumers.

Basically, value can not be created by import quota or tariff. Value is only transferred from consumers to government or foreign and domestic producers.